Task One

art Movements (12)

Post Impressionism

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Before post-impressionisms, styles like Neo-classicism, romanticism, realism and exacta where being used.







If you want to know more: http://www.artmagick.com/forum/thread.aspx?id=12241


All of these art types used realism and the artists try to get their art as relist as possible at the same time keeping their own style of drawing, painting or sketching

So when post-impressionisms came about the artist how used this new style changed how people saw art and understand how world mite look or be. By adding extra colures, made shapes or characters look deformed, try not to have their artwork be perfect.4

Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

The few how pioneered this movement were Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, and Georges Seurat, thee are other but these where the biggest.

Paul Cézanne

Paul Cézanne was a French artist, from 1839 – 1906; he laded a foundation for post-impressionist form the 19th century art styles into the 20th.


His art style was well recognized and was known to use a resistive brush strokes tat termed into complex paintings. He

Before he moved to parties and went to a privet art school named Académie Suisse. Cézanne was studding to be lawyer at the same time attended a local drawing academy in Aix.




Paul Gauguin

Paul Gauguin was a French post-impressionist artist born in 7 June 1848 to 8 May 1903. Unfortunately his art wasn’t quite appreciated untie his death, were a art dealer Ambroise Vollard exhibited Gauguin’s work, which where people preconized him fro is unique synthetic style and use of experimental coloring that differed form Impressionism.


Paul Gauguin was much or them a painter his work made him a figure in the movement of symbolism as a painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramist, and writer.



Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh is a Dutch impressionist artist; well know as one of the grates artist who eve lived. He was born in 30th March 1859 to 29th July 1890, where he took his own life at age 37. Beside that Vincent made a high contribution that changing the 20th century arts.


Form what I found in my “vast amount of reassure” I was surprise to find that Vincent create over 1,000 drawings, 150 watercolors, 10 graphic works, 9 lithographs and an etching, not to mention his 900+ paintings in his short career in his life time.

Specking of witch because of Vincent wrote 800 letters to family and friends, which allows us to dwell into his psyche and life even more them any other arts.

If you want to know more, see the “Vincent van Gogh Gallery http://www.vangoghgallery.com



Georges Seurat

Georges-Pierre Seurat was a French post-impressionist artist. Born in 2 December 1859 in Paris to 29 March 1891. He was knows for his use of original drawing media and devised techniques chromoluminarism or also known as divisionism, witch where colures are divided knot dots to form an image. Trust me this is the simplest why I can explain this without it being complicated, or think of it in a way as a printer, and pointillism, witch where a panting is constructed throw dots.


Seurat had a giant impact in art, he apparently moved away for the typical spontaneous postimpressionism and paved away for a more modern and urban life in art form.

His work was very influential in many of his impressionist contemporaries, which was a result of his anatomy training. He gave ideas on contemporary optical theories of colour relationships, basically how we would react or think when we see colour






Important Artworks

“Starry Night” 1889


Starry Night is arguably one of the most know and famous painting with in the modern ear. Vincent Van Gogh painted this while he was in an insane asylum in 1889, in his east-facing window at Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. He painted this just before the sun had risen.

Starry Night’s form could be trying to show how the universe in it’s true form, flowing of other energies in the cosmos, different suns bearing elsewhere outside our view.

Starry Night is know in the Museum of modern art in New York since 1941 but because of it’s ever growing polar it has been replicated for distribution; such digital images.

More can be found on the Van Gogh gallery:





“Vision After the Sermon” 1888


The Vision After the Sermon is an oil painting by Paul Gauguin; this patting is the most famous patting that Gauguin has ever done. It was completed in Pont-Aven, Brittany and is in the Scottish national gallery, the panting depicted a passage form the bible, genesis (32:22-32), where British women who clearly are wearing original clothing, who have just listened to a sermon. The story goes where “Jacob, who, after fording the river Jabbok with his family, spent a whole night wrestling with a mysterious angel”.

Know this infesting I found a letter that Gauguin sent to Van Gogh where he stated, “For me the landscape and the fight only exist in the imagination of the people praying after the sermon.”



Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The term was coined by an English art critic know as Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of French art since Édouard Manet, a 19th century French artist to first paint modern life.

When post-impressionism arose it was a way for art be seen outside of the artist mind. It gave rise to a new aspect of an art form from the 19th century impressionism and allowed artist with a different style to be noticed and appreciated.

Throw the cultural aspects of this movement varied to person’s thought, which for some this type of art was not reconciled until upon their deaths. But when it was it opened a way for the public to see how a post-impressionist artwork can affect a person e few or thoughts on the subject.



Expressionism/German Expressionism

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Expressionism is a modernistic art movement. It was generally seen in poetry and paintings. It was originally to have derived in Germany in the beginning of the 20th century.

This movement has fare extended beyond paintings. It can know be seen throw architecture, dance, films, music, literature and theater. Its features depend on how the artist tends to see realty and then conveys and represents that message with emotions and meaning through their art form.


Know modern street art like this below, is in its own way a type of expressionism. They represent meaning throw visualization of word or characters.





Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

Expressionism was first noticed in Germany by an artist group know as “Die Brücke”, which translates into the bridge. The formed in 1905 in a city named Dresden. It’s founding members where Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.


With this movement having a large range of characteristics suggested that artist that where famous for other movements could fall into the expressionist category and could also be said they could have been the very reason for the expressionism movement. Artist such as Van Gogh; who was a Dutch painter, Frank Wedekind; who was German play righter or James Ensor; who was Belgian painter and many more.




Important Artworks

“The Scream” 1893–1910


The Scream is one of four artworks by Edvard Munch and his a head line for expressionism. It is the second most recognized human painting. The first beaning Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa.

The term “The Scream” is a abbreviation of the full name that was give by Munch, which was Der Schrei der Natur; The Scream of Nature. Edvard made four copies of his artwork. He first was created in oil and pastels on cardboard in 1893 in the National Gallery of Art, Oslo the second in 1893 in the Munch Museum, Oslo and the third in 1895 in a private collection where pastel remake. The last one was painted using pigments and waters technique known as tempera painting in 1910. Tat is also in the National Gallery of Art,




“Blue Horse I” 1911


Blue Horse 1 is one most famous oil painting by the expressionist artist Franz Marc in 191; this is also the year when Marc founded the Der Blaue Reiter. This symbolic painting represents the strength of youth and new beginnings.




Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

Expressionism revolves heavily around social aspects and cultural devilment. Without the evolution impressionism, which gave a rise to art in a different light, expressionism would not have been as successful than it as been.

The Die Brücke group structured the movement in Germany in 1905. However the term expressionism was not used until 1913. In the 1911 a group named Der Blaue Reiter in Munich. The name means The Blue Rider, which arose from Wassily Kandinsky’s Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903. The group thought art had become too conformed by the Neue Künstlervereinigung München and as such created The Blue Rider art group.

All though the expressionism movement derived from Germany may of the precursors artists where not German through the 1910 – 1930 and even though the rise of Hitler had created an issue with in Germany there where outstanding amounts of expressionist works.






Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Cubism is one the most visional influential movement of the early 20th century, between 907 and 1914. The movement shoes realty by braking down objects and figures into areas. This allows the artist to cleverly show different views points at the same time and by replaces the conventional method of panting and drawing with shape it cave rise to new art style.


Cubism was very important to the art world if id had not occurred we would not have abstract styles including constructivism and neo-plasticism in the later future. The French critic Louis Vauxcelles gave the name cubism while he saw Georges Braque’s painting up on exhibit in praise 1908; he gave the name cubism because Georges had condensed the entire painting’s view to cubes




Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

Cubism was invented around 1907 or 8 by Pablo Picasso a Spanish artist and Georges Braque a French artist. They both lived in France and help construct the movement known as cubism.

Pablo Picasso 

Pablo Picasso or his full name Pablo Ruiz y Picasso was born in the Spain in the Málaga in the Andalusian region on 25 October 1881 to April 1973 in Mougins France, aged 91. He spent most of his adult life in francs as one the most known and influential artist of the 20th century.


Pablo besides being the co-founder of cubism art he was also a sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright, invented the art form know as constructed sculpture, help co- invention of the technique collage and many other style that he help develop and explore.




Georges Braque

Georges Braque was a French artist. He was born on in May the13 1882 and died in August 31 1963, aged 81. Before working with Pablo Picasso, which gave a rise to cubism he was a member of the Fauves. Georges is regarded as one the most important figure of the 20th century his art works included as a painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.


Georges Braque spent many years working on still life. He was fascinated to view objects though verso potions with colour, lines and texture. His work with paint far extended than cubism but he spent far less time being a personality in the art world than being in his studio.




Important Artworks

“Factory at Horto de Ebro” 1909


Picasso painted the oil painting, Factory at Horto de Ebro, in the summer of 1909 in the southern of Spain Horta de Ebro. Picasso vested there the second time after spending seven months with his friend Manuel Pallares in 1898.

This where Picasso stared a series of landscapes, which where crustal to building up for cubism.




Bouteille et poissons” 1882–1963


Bouteille et poisons or Bottle and Fishes is an oil painting by Georges Braque. The painting is constructed in a grid like way of bottle and fishes on plat with a drawer on a table. It’s formation and colouring as a goes against Braque’s earlier paintings of free expression.



Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

Cubism is an art from that transitioned with the 20the century. It is a form of abstract art that quickly sped up as an art movement that was tried of the consistent western arts. The artist who used is movement where trying change predictable art form which hade been lade there form the Renaissance. The artist wanted representation, such as perspective to danged with the ever-growing world.

Within the evolutionary decanted between 1870 and 1910, artist had rival know as photography. Photography could capture an image and it’s movements of an object much more quickly than a artist could ever paint, this started an revolution to catch up with technology. In 1907 Picasso and Braque sort to equalize with technology and they both stared with Paul Cézanne works as a guide to develop cubism.





Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Surrealism is art from established in the early 1920s. The movement was to resolve between dreams and realty threw visual artwork and writings. This movement took away realty’s understanding to a more psychological depth, which was clearly shown within the artists decoded artworks.


Surrealism was a cultural movement, which why allot of the artist whom where involved with this movement regarded there work to be philosophical movement. The most distinguishing future was to shock or to surprise the view.




Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

The pioneers of this movement art are two people Guillaume Apollinaire and André Breton. This two have helped surrealism into the movement that it as become today.

Guillaume Apollinaire


Guillaume Apollinaire was a French artist although he had a polish heritage, he was born in Rome on the 26th of August 180 to 9th November 1819. His works included as a poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic.

he was know as the foremost poet of the 20th century and greatly defended the movement known as cubism, which had a hand in naming in 1911 and the terms “Orphism” in 1912 to describe the works of Frantisek Kupka.



André Breton

André Breton was a French artist. Born in February 19 1896 to September 28 1966, aged 70 in Paris. He was a writer, poet, anarchist and anti-fascist. He is known as the founder of surrealism as his contributions helped to develop the movement t the point it has become.


He had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic methods. With his large understanding of the human brain his development with surrealism was bound to have established the movement to a refined state.




Important Artworks

The Persistence of Memory” 1931


The Persistence of Memory is an oil surrealism painting by Salvador Dali a Spanish painter. It was first shown at the Julien Levy Gallery in 1932 and it is currently the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. It represents a dream’s tangible form and its credible appearance.




The Son of Man” 1964


The Son of Man is a surrealism oil painting by Belgian painter René Magritte, his self-portrait as known as son of man is a phrase from the Hebrew Bible. One of the representations could be to contrasts the differences between man and God.



Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The movement was developed out of the Dadaism or Dada movement in during World War 1. Surrealism was centred in price as may arts forms had bee, this movement became globally recognised in many contrives and languages, which effected the visual arts, literature, film and music. It was also proven to be beneficial with political thought and practice and aid Philosophy, and social theory.

As this was a cultural movement, with the World War 1 woken out on the 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. The writers and artist who where in prices where scattered due to the war. One of who was André Breton that may have helped surrealism to be what it is know but the term and to cone surrealism was Guillaume Apollinaire a French artist and critic.







Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Futurism was a ground braking art movement led in the early 20th canary. It’s has been organdy a social Italian movement. It’s purpose to move on, allowing Italy’s past to stay in the past. The main features of this movement revolved around the ever-developing world, its artwork mainly included technology, youth, violence and the speed of the modernization evolution. It also includes objects that the artist used to emphasizing the industrial car, airplanes and cites.


The movement sought to show how advancements in the conjunction human and technological evolution. The movement did spread around the world in centuries such as Russia, England and many more. Beside the movement dwelling it the world’s advancements and social conventions in many ways the artist who practiced the movement used a verity of mediums such as painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design and many more.






Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

Although Filippo Tommaso Marinetti founded the futurism movement, he was one of many who help make futurism to the point it is now. The member of the futurist group came together and shared in Marinetti idea where Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini and Luigi Russolo.

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was an Italian poet and editor born on the 22 of December 1876 in Alexandria, Egypt to the 2 of December 1944 in Bellagio, Italy. He was the founder of the futurist movement and associated with utopian and Symbolists artistic and literary community Abbaye de Créteil between 1907 and 1908.


Marinetti is well known for the manifesto that he wrote about futurism. This could have never been if He didn’t love in Egypt with his father and mother as if they where married. His father was layer from Piedmont and his mother was from Italy the daughter of a literary professor from Milan. He became fascinated with literature when his mother, how had a love for literature experienced him into the writing arts of the Italian and European classics. He first studied in Egypt then in Paris, obtaining a baccalauréat degree in 1894 at the Sorbonne, and in Italy, graduating in law at the University of Pavia in 1899. After he had studded he decided to pursue a career in literature instead of a lawyer.




Giacomo Balla

Giacomo Balla was an art teacher in Italy. He was born on July 18 1871. Turin, Italy and dead on March 1 1958 in Rome, Italy at aged 86. He was mainly known for his paining and poetry but he also a sculptor and designer. He also studied in music until age 9 when his father dead. Balla was one people how participated in futurism apintings.


Giacomo Balla had a lithograph print shop until age 20 his interests shifted towards art. He was self-taught artist but did attend local academe and evening classes. He moves to Rome in 1895 where his eraly works influenced by the Italian Divisionists. he was not involved with the futurism movement until 1912, which as made him to be know as one of the original and inventive of the futurist painters, and When he started in futurism he created arts that depicted of light, movement and speed.




Umberto Boccioni

Umberto Boccioni was an Italian painter born on the19th of October 1882 in Reggio Calabria, Italy to 17th of August 1916Verona, Italy, aged 33. Help influences the Futurism movement and is was an prominent person in the futurist group. Though he lived a shot life his works even after his death inspired and guided artist on his studies of to dynamism of form and the deconstruction of solid mass.


Boccioni was very important to the futurist movement not only in the development of the theories but also help to innovate the movement by including the cubic style that people known associate the group with. Before he died in the Italian army involved in First Would war, Boccioni created many artworks in painting and in sculptures.




Carrà, Gino Severini

Gino Severini was an Italian painter born in Cortona on April 7th 1883 to, 26th of February in Paris 1966. He helped the futurist group with his form of art that combined with science gave us outstanding work that help the futurism movement.


He moved to Paris in 1906 to study painting in all it forms. He hew many artist involved in impressionism and post-impressionism they where leaders of the avant-garde, art of the French capital that including Paul Signac, Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, and the poets Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Fort and Max Jacob. This could be where the movement could have gained the assets from post- impressionism tat is found in Futurism.




Luigi Russolo

Luigi Russolo was Italian futurist painter born on the 30th of April 1885 to 6th of February 1947. His involvement in Futurism was for grater lengths than it was for the others, how still relied on some aspects of old techniques. Russolo completely   embodied the quote from the manifesto “destroying the cult of the past”.


Russolo was one the earliest futurist and to become one the first friend of the Marinetti who wrote the Futurism Manifesto. He also wrote a manifesto on sound named The Art of Noises in 1913. He was curious with noises after witness to a performance of Balilla Pratella’s symphony at the Costanzi Theatre in Rome. He did a number of performances before and after the First Would War, experimenting with noise music concerts. From thn on words he designed and constructed a bunch of sound divvies called “Intonarumori”.




Important Artworks

“The City Rises” 1910


This is an oil painting by one the members of the futurist group, Umberto Boccioni, who painted is in 1910 colorfully named The City Rises. This painting is one most famous works that Boccioni did that included the futurism movement. The original name was Il lavoro, work or the job because of its appearance at the exhibition of free art in 1911.

The painting illustrates the rise of a modern city trough the destruction of war and pieces arising form all the hostility. Boccioni diced to paint this as the idea of war was presented within the futurist manifesto.




“The Cyclist” 1913


The Cyclist is an oil painting, by Natalia Goncharova a Russian painter, illustrator, set and costume designer, and writer in 1913. She was a member of The Blue Riders and developed the art style of Rayonism, which gaited in Russia. The futurist movement influenced Natalia, which she demonstrated with hire artworks, this painting is no exception.

She was also influenced by cubism as seen in this painting. There are many layers of cubism and both post and impressionism art styles. Such as the the cyclists legs having more than one action frame and the cyclists back and the bike having a slight fade as if it was a after image, show the motion that this image in going throw.





Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The futurism movement began when Filippo Tommaso published his Manifesto on futurism in 1909 on 20th February on the front page of a Paris newsletter Le Figaro. That heading of that Manifesto gave rise to a Italian group named then futurists just before the First World War had began.

The movement blended together form Neo-Impressionism and cubism to form an idea of dynamism. To some you could look futurism as a stepping stone for the art movements of Deco, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dada, and to a greater degree Precisionism, Rayonism, and Vorticism.

This movement as it was being formed tried to abandon the past art forms of culture and bring about a more modernistic life in art that was inspired my the Post-Impressionism. As to this the artist embraced a new word and its new technological advancements that hep make futurism what it is today.







Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Bauhaus was an art school in the city of Weimar. Built in 1919 to 1933. It was created to form a better understanding and to renew the art world’s lack of purpose in society, creativity and correlation to manufacturing, which were drifting apart so Bauhaus aimed to fix this with there art schooled.


The school combined both elements of the fine arts and design education. Within the school’s curriculum the students where commenced with a preliminary course that immersed them in the field of materials, color theory, and formal relationships for more specialized studies. The students came from a diverse range of social and educational backgrounds.




Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

This schools plurality began wen Walter Gropius was offered to take charge.

Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was an germane architect born on the 13th of May 1883 Germany and died on 5th of July 1969, aged 86 in the united stats of America in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was the founder of the Bauhaus school and dedicated hi life to it


He was drafted in August 1914 and served as a sergeant and then as a lieutenant in the signal corps as the First World War took place. Gropius was being buried under rubble and dead bodies, and survived a after a pilot was shot in the sky.

He was received the Iron Cross twice. After the war he became a architect like his father and grand father. He did many projects and made many advancement that are iconized that are used in day-to-day life such as the door handle or arm chair. With the rise of Hitler Gropius decide to live Germany in 1934 and with the help of a British architect Maxwell Fry. He went Italy for a will to addend a film propaganda festival and then to Briton where he worked with Fry and then whet to the United States with his Family in1937.




Important Artworks

“Bauhaus building in Dessau, Germany” 1919-1925


Bauhaus building in Dessau, Germany was the first building of the three. From an external look it would seem to normal have no creative or helpful design but it id recognized as one of the most influential designs form modern architect. For this reason this the most famous works of Bauhaus.



“Club Chair” (Model B3) The Wassily Chair 1925


This design was wwhat made Wassily Kandinsky well know for. The design was well thought; it was strong enough to hold agents any changes towards the handles, which where made form a new seamless-steel that the time. It also light, easy to move and easy to produces. The chair was only assonated with him decanted later by acetone by an Italian manufacturer and the named was given the Wassily Chair.



Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

Bauhaus school was influenced by the 19th and 20th century’s trends such as arts and crafts. It tried to tech the understanding of relationship with society and technology involved with art. Because of this reason the school gained an image of a medieval crafts guild. However in the 120s the stress that eventually came trying to unite arts with industrials deigns. How ever the school was closed dude to presser from the Nazi-led government who claimed that the school was a centre of communist intellectualism. So even though the school closed the staff migrate way form Germany and the knowledge and ideals around the world, with major impacts with in Europe and the United States.

Besides it’s image of a medieval guild. It’s was also famous was it’s staff which included artists Wassily Kandinsky, Josef Albers, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Johannes Itten, architects Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and designer Marcel Breuer.

The school moved to three locations for the ramming years that it was open. The first location was Weimar from 1919 to 1925, the second; Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and the third; Berlin from 1932 to 1933 and for each transfer had a new architect director, the first; Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, the second; Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and the third; Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933. The result of this change in management effect he schools direction, technique, instructors, and politics. Such as when Ludwig Mies, the third director, took chage he made the school a privet and didn’t let any one who was a supporter of the Hannes Meyer, the previous director, to attend the school.

http://www.theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus



Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Minimalism is an art movement that was in the post World War 2 in the 1960s America. It was used in visual art and music. It main features include to reduce every thing down to it most distinguishing features, this could be colour, shapes, outlines, letters or even objects.


The movement cam to be in New York, minimalist thought that art had become to detailed and academic, they rejected many movements that relied of shading and detail. The minimalist leaned towards symbolic and geometric visuals.





Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

There where many people who helped the minimalism movement. The fooling ate jus of few how helped in there own aspects.

Carl Andre

Carl Andre is an American artist born in Quincy, Massachusetts 1935 he is currently aged 80. He is a minimalist artist that works with structural formations and a poet. Brancusi and Stella, his close friend heavily influenced him on his artworks.


He’s known for his ordered linear format and grid sculptures. He studied at Phillips Academy, Andover, MA. He worked in Boston Gear Works in 1954, traveled to England and France, served in the American army throw 1955 to 1956. Then he moved to New York where he worked for a publisher and wrote pottery, made drwrings and made a few sculptures in perspex and wood, with geometric forms.




Agnes Martin

Agnes Martin was born on the 22h of March in Macklin, Saskatchewan in Canada 1912 and died on the 16th of December in Taos, New Mexico in the United States 2004. She was an artist who referred herself as an abstract expressionist but others suggest her work be minimalist, her work has been defined as an “essay in discretion, inwardness and silence”.


Agnes believed that spiritual thing towards art could have a grater impact than logical. Her uses of evocative paint strokes and subtle pencil lines with restricted washed colours, something she’s been known for and with here contributions to art she was awarded National Medal of Arts from the National Endowment for the Arts in 1998.




Frank Stella

Frank Stella in an American artist born on the 12th of May 1936 in Malden, Massachusetts, aged 79 he is know for his paintings in minimalism post-painterly abstraction. He’s deled in Painting, Printmaking, Sculpture and Architecture. Hes imerced himself in whide rage of movements, which includeed: Modernism,, Abstract expressionism, Geometric abstraction, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical abstraction, Hard-edge painting, Shaped canvas painting and Color field painting.


Stella work had a dynamic that flowed with his art. He studying in Phillips Academy in Andover in Massachusetts he then when to Princeton University, his major was in history and there he met Darby Bannard and Michael Fried both involved in the art industry media. Visiting New Your galleries before he permanently lived there influenced his devilment to his art. And New York art galleries influenced his artist development, and his work was influenced by abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline both highly regarded in as abstract painters.

His father was a gynecologist, and his mother had a love for art, she attended fashion school and later took up landscape painting. His mother could have the reason for his inters in art.



Others have also contributed to this movement in visual arts:

Jo Baer


Larry Bell


Ronald Bladen



Dan Flavin


Donald Judd


Sol LeWitt


Robert Mangold


John McCracken



Robert Morris


Robert Ryman


Fred Sandback


Tony Smith


All these artists have mad a contribution in some way to the minimalism movement. There own brand of style and individuality has been incorporated into the testament of this movement and for some still continuing to this day.



Important Artworks

“Shoot” 1964


Shoot is an acrylic painting by the minimalist artist Kenneth Noland in 1964. It currently being held in the Smithsonian American Art Museum Museum

Use of simple shapes and colours clearly makes it a minimalism artwork. It’s points going down and sharp tips with it’s name being shoot, the painting could be showing a wave of a built after its been shot. As it gets further away the speed becomes more neutral, which could be why the coloring is the way it is. Red for danger, blue for it calming down, pink for the danger is passing and green for the danger has pated.




“Harran II” 1967                                                                                                         


Harran II is polymer and fluorescent polymer painting by Frank stella n 1967. He gave a lot of names that included ancient cities in Asia Minor that followed the roman numerals into groups: interlaces, rainbows, or “fans. Frank’s use of shapes and colours interlocking in this painting, though it’s complicated theirs still use of simplistic colours that can clearly been seen.




Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

Before the movement minimum truly took place and established it self to know to the world the term was used the 20th century n England to explain a painting that was painted in 1913 by Kasimir Malevich a Russian painter who painted a black square on a white ground. Minimum art has been known as also minimal art, literalist art and ABC Art.

To help create the advancement of this art movement to be known, there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions. The first was Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture. Kynaston McShine the museum’s Curator of Painting and Sculpture, organized the hole exhibition on the 27 of April to the 12 of June in1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York, and the second was Lawrence Alloway who curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum that curated Systemic Painting, also in 1966. In the showcase there was Geometric abstraction in the American art world via shaped canvas, Colour Field, and Hardedge painting. Wit the help of these exhibitions, museum curators, art dealers, and publications, plus new systems of private and government patronage, with the help of a new art movement group that came to rise, challenged minimalism named post- minimalism truly established the minimalism movement and it importance.

Without minimum there wouldn’t be modern sued in every day lives, such as signs on streets, symbols that that don’t need to red or marketing purposes to clearly show there product. Minimum is being used far grate extent than it started both in media and out.





Pop Art

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Pop Art originated in Briton in the 1950s than later in America. Within the 1960s the movement hade become largely associated with both Brian and America in cultural and conventual media, such as advertising Hollywood movies, fames figures and son on.


The movement can be including anything from both life and emanation. Is main appeal take out its context and replace it with another, to make the art stand out in a different fashion and exaggerate colures and some times avatars them self or there qualities as if they would “pop”. Hens the name Pop art




Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

The main key people who helped in the devilment of Pop Art are: Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Richard Hamilton, Peter Blake and David Hockney.

Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol was an American artist born on the 6th of August Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania1928 to the 226th of February in New York, New York 1987. He was a leading figure in pop art. He studied exhibited in his art shows relationship between the artist expression, celebrity culture, and advertisement.


His art used many forms of media they included hand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening, sculpture, film, and music. He was well recognized for hi works and sometimes know as controversial artist. He’s had a hand in pioneer on computers to generate art, using Amiga computers tat was released in 1984. His work can bee seen in his home city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in The Andy Warhol Museum where there are permanent collections of art and archives.




Roy Lichtenstein

Roy Lichtenstein was an American artist: a painter, lithographer and sculptor. He became a pop artist during the 19760s as did other people. He was born on the 27th of October in Manhattan, New York in 1923 to 29th of September in 1997, aged at 73. His style was influenced by comic book’ use of style and popular advertising, he used the basic aspects of pop art but a parody, and as such his a icon figure to the pop art movement.


He studied at the Art Students League 1939 and at Ohio State College between 1940 to 1943, he service in the War in 1943 to 1946 then returned to Ohio State College in the same year until 1949, and taught there until 1951. He then did various odd jobs, and was an instructor at New York State University, Oswego in 1957 to 1960 and at Rutgers University in 1960 to 1963. During the 1960s he started incorporate carton imagery his art become this sharp comic book style that has made him renowned as a pop artist.




Richard Hamilton

Richard Hamilton is a British artist, born on the 24th of February in Pimlico, London, England in 1922 to the 13th of September 201, aged 89. He was a painter and collagist and his work has been know to exhibit early sighs of pop art that he exhorted in the independent group (IG), which he was a member of.


He studied at the Royal Academy Schools from 1938 to 1946, where he was expelled for ‘not profiting from the instruction being given in the painting school’. Between these years he studied engineering draughtsmanship at a Government Training Centre in 1940. Then moved on to worked as a ‘jig and tool’ designer after that he returned back to he Academy where he was unjustly expelled. He hen went into the Slade School of Art from 1948 to 1951.




Peter Blake

Peter Blake or Sir Peter Thomas Blake is a pop artist born in the 25th of June Dartford, Kent in England 1932, age 83. He studied and the Royal College of Art(RCA) and has other tillers to his name, the Order of the British Empire (CBE) and the Royal Designers for Industry (RDI). Hes bes know to have create a album cover for the Beetles named Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.


Blake was a pioneer in the pop art movement his works showed his fascination with combining images from pop culture with fine art.

He served in the R.A.F in 1951 to 1953 then continued his studies at the Royal College of Art in 1953 to 1956. He got he opportunity to when he won the Leverhulme Research Award to study popular art, he visited Holland, Belgium, France, Italy and Spain between 1956 1957




David Hockney

David Hockney was a British painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer. He was born in 9th of July in Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire 1937, aged 78. He studied at the Bradford School of Art in 1953 to 1958 and like Blake he also studied at the Royal College of Art in 1959 to 1962. He is a very important figurer to the pop art movement due to his art contributions in the 20th century.


Hockney apparently was a draughtsman while studying at Bradford, he coped fragments of poems into his paintings by doing this he creating a specific identity for the painted marks through the alliance of word and image and gave rise to a series of paintings produced between the 1960and the 1961 on the theme of homosexual love.

Hockney was many awards, they include John Moores Painting Prize in 1967, Companion of Honour in 1997 and the Royal Academician Order of Merit in 2012.




Important Artworks

“Campbell’s Soup Cans” 1962


Campbell’s Soup Cans in Synthetic polymer painting by Andy Warhol in 1962. He painted 32 cans each for a frame. He organdy displayed this on shelf’s as if they where a product being sold. The number of cans isn’t random but in corresponds to the company of the soup cans product line. They’re where 32 flavors and so there are 32 cans, in chronological order also corresponding to the soup company’s product relies.

The painting was nerve intended to be in a commercial way, like that of abstractionists. Warhol took together things that are where know in culture that any one cam relate to such as these soup cans or Mickey mouse and then depict them in a consumerism light but keeping the context of fin art.




“I Was a Rich Man’s Plaything” 1947


I Was a Rich Man’s Plaything was a collage by Sir Eduardo Paolozzi constructed from magazines in 1947. The magazines where give to him by an American ex servicemen. This is one of ten collages Paolozzi did. It is in the Tate Modern in London.

This was a very important foundation for pop art. This combination together to work well for pop culture documents, it included a pulp fiction novel cover, a Coca-Cola advertisement, and a military recruitment advertisement. Tis may be a darker sighed to pop art but this collage exhibited all the sighs of modern pop art that has come to be know.




Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The term was used but not full being used until December 1962 where the movement was introduced in a “Symposium on Pop Art” in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Pop art like minimalism wanted to reject the old views of art. Pop art cane to because young people where to be inspired by current events in media and cultural aspects with the use of comic book styles. The artists who would use this movement by emphasizing the predictable or kitschy elements of any culture in there work usually to make the something seem ironic.

With is movement there are no restriction on using anything form the real world. The artist can include brands, logos and popular figures. The copyright law hardly applies to this movement. One example is Campbell’s Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol.

A group known as the Independent Group or the IG in London 1952 thought to be the founders of the this movement. They where comprised of young painters, sculptors, architects, writers and critics, they set out a approached to modernizing culture as well as traditional views of fine art. Pop art was introduced later in American culture but they used a sharper and more dramatic dynamic then the British style of pop art. The advertising industry took advantage of this nee medium in very clever and sophisticated way. This led the movement’s artists to change their own approach on a deeper level, so they would differ from the making aspects of pop art.





Conceptual Art

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Conceptual art or some me simple referred as to conceptualism is a art movement that began in he 19350s. It as also ben mentioned as Idea art, Post-Object art and dematerialized art because of its way of being planed to create its art.


The movement can exhibit anything for metals to objects and is an amalgam of other various tendencies. The movement mainly features are to create an idea or concept, than everything thought up beforehand in a set of instructions, which are used to crate the artwork itself. This was more imported, which is why it sometimes is know as installations





Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

Joseph Kosuth

Joseph Kosuth was an American conceptualist artist born on the 31 of January 1945 in Toledo, Ohio. He studied at the Toledo Museum School of Design during 1955 to 1962 and then studied from the Belgian painter Line Bloom Draper as a mentee, then enlisted in the Cleveland Art Institute throw 1963 to 1964 and then finally in 1965 he moved to New Your, where whet to the School of Visual Arts in New York City. He lives in both New your and London although he has lived in to other contras around Europe, which included Ghent, Rome and Berlin.


When finishing his education at thehe School of Visual Arts in New York City, he joined the faculty, he then discarded painting and began making conceptual works. His works where first shown in 1967 at the exhibition space he co-founded, known as the Museum of Normal Art. He held is fist solo exhibition in 1969 at Leo Castelli Gallery in New York, and within the same year, he became the American editor of the journal Art and Language.

Kosuth is known as one of the pioneer of the conceptual movement and for installation art. With his works through languages, he as mad e a high contribution to the conceptual movement throw his use of language based meaning to describe and explain art.





Joseph Beuys

Joseph Beuys, born the 12 of May in Krefeld, Germany in the 1921 and died on the 23 of January in Düsseldorf, West Germany in the 1986. He was an artist assonated with many different forms of art. He was a German Fluxus; which was a network of artist who where recognized for thee use of blending different artistic media, happening and performance artist. He also dabbled in sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.


Beuys had a talent for drawing according to his techier in secondary school known as the staatliches Gymnasium Cleve but now renamed as the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gymnasium. He worked in Europe and the United States in the duration of his career in the 1950s through the early 1980s. at this point Beuys was lossless associated with the conceptual movement; know for his sculptures and Fluxus.

Beuys had a interest for may thing inludeding the art world form historical Nordic and mythology with natural sciences to piano and cello lessons. He had deep passion for art and crated several artworks, which flowed different genres, from traditional media, such as drawing or painting to process-oriented, or time-based “action” art.





Sol LeWitt

Sol LeWitt was an American artists born on the 9 of September in Hartford, Connecticut 1928and died in the 8 of April in New York 2007he has been recognized for his work> he was linked to many movements but his most know are conceptual art and minimalism. He came to fame I the 1960s, with his drawings, which he preferred to ne refried as structures than sculptures, and he as had hundreds of solo exhibitions in museums and galleries around the world since 1965.


Sol LeWitt wss a very important figure in the conceptual movement, his worked by structuring conceptualism even more than it was, creating almost like a blueprint for his ideas, as such he has had leading role in the conceptualism movement.




Important Artworks

“One and Three Chairs” 1965


One and Three Chairs was constructed in1965 as conceptual art by Joseph Kosuth. The construct shows a physical chai, with a image tat is to scale of an orgnale chain and a definition of the word “Char” The construct is a psychological term on life, it make a person think on the aspects: why the chair is there, why is there one and a picture along with a definition of a chair and why a chair.

This is a very important artwork and a perfect example of the conceptual movement. This construct goes beyond the simple foems that where thought to be for the movement and as such it rose Conceptual movement to a higher stature.




“Vertical Earth Kilometer” 1977


Vertical Earth Kilometer was a conceptual art created in 1977 by Walter de Maria a American sculptor, composer and multi-media artist. This pieces of work is noted fore the simplistic and elegant construct, he used of a industrial drill, to dig a narrow hole in the ground exactly one kilometer deep, plavced a two-inch diameter brass rod of the same length and then masked it with a sandstone plate. He then cut a small hole in the plate’s center to reveal a small portion of the rod, which is flawlessly level with the ground.


Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The term conceptual art was coined the very next decade fro the mid 50s, in 1961 by Henry Flynt who is an American anti-artist activist, who wrote a article in a publication named “An Anthology of Chance Operations” which was an artist’s book in the early 1960s. The book contained experimental neodada art and music composition that used John Cage inspired indeterminacy. In the 1960s the conceptual art movement was a retaliation against formalism, which is where the arts was studied by only analyzing their styles of their visual aspects.

The movement was a ways for artist to use there incites to art and not rely too heavily on the victualed aspects of other art movements. In its popularity many forms such as performances, marketing or ephemera, which is to keep or do some thing fore a short amount of time, these where thought to be irrelevant and as such this became the main standpoint of conceptual art and. Though the art itself was not to be found in the same categories as previous art like Expressionism, Dada, cubism and other movements, it is still cataloged as art in society by collectors, allergists, and museum curators. The term art is in the beauty of the beholder fits perfectly to explain this art movement’s concept.

In the 150s the influence art critic Clement Greenberg who had theorized the notion of art should observe its own nature was included in the early conceptual art manifesto the “Art after Philosophy” in 1969.this helped Tony Godfrey the author of Conceptual Art “Art & Ideas” in 1998 extend the understand of conceptual art, which Joseph Kosuth did in a seminal.

Because of this movement artists rejected the usual forms of art that was base upon was being reinvented in the mid 19960 to 1970s. Between this pried of time who followed the conceptual movement produced and had written many works involving the movement. Conceptual artists helped to equalize photographs, musical scores, architectural drawings, and performance art from the previous ways of judging I the way of art works standards.







Art Deco

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Art deco is a movement that began on the 920s. It originated in France as an arts and crafts style howver this style was was used for a building in Paris between 1910 and 1913.


The movement used a mixture of modern art styles during the 1920s to 30s it combined the old forms of arts and crafts with new geometric and mechanical style, with bold with assortment of colors and avant-garde painting styles of the early 20th century. The main feature Art Deco uses are the way lines or solid/gradients of colure are formed and shone to outline or create an object(s)





Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

The Movement Art Deco was derived form another movement now as art Nouveau. This movement was practiced by the group society know as “La Société des artistes décorateurs” (Society of Decorative Artists), they have bee said to be the reason of influencing the Art Deco. They where

Hector Guimard


Eugène Grasset,


Raoul Lachenal

No mage are available of this person

Paul Bellot


Maurice Dufrêne


Emile Decoeur



This group went to the Universal Exposition of 1900 to show case there decretive art style and promote French crafts.

They where a society that where operating from 1901 to the 2000s. the group where bunch of designers, who where furniture, interiors and decorative art creationists.




Important Artworks

“The Musician” 1929


The Musician was an oil painting by Tamara de Lempicka in 1929. Lempicka was good at decoding the Art Deco style; she changed the deco style from a decrotive and design use to a painting use. Here use of the form, is shown in this painting of a woman playing a acoustic guitar.



Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The term art Deco was coned in the 1960s it’s shortened from the word Arts Decorative, drom the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes “International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts” in 1925.

The earliest from that liked this movement, the group known as “La Société des artistes décorateurs” Society of Decorative Artists. The group was traced to the world fair held in prices, France that began on the 15 of April to 12 November n 1900 named the Exposition Universelle (1900). The term was first used to attributed to architect Le Corbusier, he penned a series of articles in his journal named L’Esprit nouveau under the headline “1925 Expo: Arts Déco”. The Art Deco’s term was already being used generally by 1966. At this point in time a French exhibition was held celebrating the 1925 event titled “Les Années 25: Art Déco/Bauhaus/Stijl/Esprit Nouveau”, where the term Art Deco was given to a nay style of French decretive crafts that hade flourished since Belle Époque or La Belle Époque French for Beautiful Era.

Art Deco was a art style that began just before the 1 world war had risen. Many countries around the world had adopted the Deco style and had become very popular in the 1920s to the 1940s. After the 2ed world war had broken out the movement’s popularity had diminished. The art movement’s style was very popular, it was seen in vertices amount of works some includes the fine and decorative arts, fashion, film, photography, transport and product design.

The style was originally aimed for crafts but it became a home for many City as a cultural movement by architects used the Deco style for many Architecture buildings such as the Auditorium and stage of Radio City Music Hall, New York City (1932) or the Grand Rex movie palace in Paris (1932).





Art Nouveau

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Art Nouveau is a decretive art movement hat originated in Frances in the early 19th and 20th centuries. It has ben acknowledged in philosophy, in art and architecture. The movement goes by many names such as Russ to men Modern the name it self that most people refer to (Art Nouveau) means “new art”.


The movement main father is to use natural and organic forms to be used in border styles with interlocking circles lines and shapes with naturalistic elements such as flowers. It uses an assortment of faded rich colours to give the illusion of an antique.



this definition is from Google

a style of decorative art, architecture, and design prominent in western Europe and the USA from about 1890 until the First World War and characterized by intricate linear designs and flowing curves based on natural forms.


Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt was an Austrian symbolist painter, born on the 14th of July in Baumgarten, Austrian Empire1862 and died on the 6th of February in Vienna, Austria-Hungary 1918. Klimt is know to be involved with the symbolism and Art Nouveau movements.


He was a member of the Vienna Secession movement and he was the first precedent of the group that left the Association of Austrian Artists, he his know for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other “objets d’art. He primary subject was the female body that was at time been known to be conservational, his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, and he painted landscapes. amog the group Klimt was the most incorporated by Japanese art and he incorporated said art into his own works.

His works where unappreciated and jugged for its form of erotic and exotic nature, even though his works did far exceeded the timeframe with imbedded symbolism, which was had to notice.




Hector Guimard

Hector Guimard was a French architect, born on the 10 of March in 10 March in Lyon, France 1867 and died on the 20 of May in New York, USA 1942 aged 75. His use of the art nouveau in architecture has led him to designed buildings such as: Castel Béranger, the first building apartment in the nouveau movement in parries, Maison Coilliot or know as as the Coilliot houses, which built to popularize art nouveau by Louis Coilliot and Villa La Bluette, which was built for a lawyer, both from and in Paris.


Guimard’s work is recognized by historians as a very important and an figer to the art nouveau movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Wile he was traveling through through Belgium and England he saw a recent building that had been built in Brussels, designed by the Belgian designer Victor Horta. This inspired Guimard through his life and based his own works on Horta’s style.






Eugène Grasset

Eugène Samuel Grasset was a Swiss decorative artist. Born on the 25th of May in Lausanne, Switzerland 1845 and died on the 23th of October in Sceaux, Hauts-de-Seine, France 1917. Grasset is know for his use of art style in the decorative arts and is considered a pioneer in the Nouveau movement. he worked in Parries where he accomplished a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque.


Grasset was raised surrounded by an artistical averment, as was the son for a cabinet designer, maker and sculptor. Later he went to be taught drawing by Francois-Louis David Bocion during 1828 to 1890, he then went to study architecture in 1861 at the “polytechnical school”, Zurich. After completing his education, he visited Egypt, where he had an experience that led later be reflected in a number of his poster designs. Grasset was successful when he went to Paris in 1871, where his works where recognition as the illustrator of the stories: “Le Petit Nab” in 1877 and “Histoire de quatre fils Aymon” in 1883.




Important Artworks

“Entrance Gate to Paris Subway Station” 1900


Entrance Gate to Paris Subway Station was subway station designed by Hector Guimard in 1900. Guimard was asked to design a subway station in Paris, the second city after London to have an underground railway, he designed it and, he inserted the Nouveau movement in to the stations structural factions, which are implanted slightly but can be still seen.



“Cover design for ‘Wren’s City Churches” 1883


Cover design for ‘Wren’s City Churches was a woodcut print by Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo in 1883. This use the Nouveau movement along side with the Arts and craft movement, this print has all the caustics of English Design. “In particular, Mackmurdo’s use of positive and negative space, his abstract-cum-naturalistic forms, and the trademark “whiplash” curves, are all characteristic of the visual and decorative energy that would eventually define Art Nouveau”. This peace of work may contain the art Nouveau movement and is a very important to later works I this movement, however this print is not absolute example of the movement’s style.


Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The style a full out decretive art movement, it stared in 1890 and ended in 1905. The movement dwelled nearly in every form of Visual art forms and was very popular in social aspects; the movement includes architecture, graphic art, interior design, decorative arts, jewellery, furniture, textiles, household silver and other utensils, lighting, and the fine arts.

Thaws how developed Art Nouveau where inspired by nature and organic life within the world with geometric forms and angular contours. The artist thought that the eclectic historical styles witch had previously been popular had run its course. They thought of establishing the arts and craft- based decorative arts as an equal and abolishing the hatchery traditional art forms that were thought to be, such as painting and sculptures.

The movement when out of fashion though it still is being used today in silver where and house enterer designs. The movement is recognized to guide the Art Deco style that rise in the 1920s. Insded of the movement diging out with the ages it rebooted in the 1960s and is seen as an important predecessor of modernism.

The Art Nouveau or Jugendstil, theses two names where the most communally known but in only some areas, although the names keeper changing as it was munched and spread around hence this movement having some many names. The two names that where derived from both helped popularized the style. The first was from Siegfried Bing’s gallery “Maison de l’Art Nouveau” in Paris and the second from a magazine named the Jugend in Germany, Bavaria, Munich.

The galley, which was initiated in 1895, was named Art Nouveau meaning hose new art, its quarter, Siegfried Bing, exclusively exhibited modern art, with the fame that arose from his exhibits increased the 1900 Exposition Universelle where he displayed modern future, tapestries and objets d’art (art objects).

The style had bee so successful that it was featured many fairs, presented as buildings and products designed it was in the 1888 “Barcelona Universal Exposition”, which began the rise of the Modernism movement, with some buildings of Lluís Domènech i Montaner a Spanish Catalan modernist architect who used Art Nouveau in his works. The “Exposition “Universelle” of 1900 in Paris showed a oversight of the new style, every medium. It gained even further recognition at the “Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna” of 1902 in Turin, Italy, where the movement was practiced and the designers exhibited there works, almost every European country.





Arts and Crafts

Features of the movement – what new technological advancements were made or what features define the movements

Arts and craft movement was a very imported in the fine and decorative arts it began in Britain around 1880 and then flourished in Europe, north America and Japan, with many styles that included from simple use of lines and colorings to complicated textural designs and functionalities. Thaws who use this movement aim to crate traditional art throw practical objects.


The main feature of this movement is not a specific use of an art style but rather the way the product(s) is beaning viewed and the idea. The movement’s main use of presentation is the key aspect that appeal to the public, and as such it is know to be used in the fin arts.




Who are the pioneers/major artists/practitioners of the movement?

William Morris

William Morris was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist. Born on the 24th of March in Walthamstow, Essex, England 1834 and died on the 324th of October in Hammersmith, Middlesex, England 1896 aged 62. He know for his Wallpaper and textile design, fantasy fiction / medievalism, socialism


Morris was a huge figure associated with the arts and craft movement, he had a lager role to paly in the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production, Morris ‘literary contributions gave the rise to establish the modern fantasy genre, as he did he played a significant role in broadcasting the early socialist movement in Britain




Augustus Pugin

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin was a British: architect, designer, artist and critic. Born on the 1st of May in Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, London 1812 qnd died on the 14th of Septem in Ramsgate, Kent, England 1852, aged 40. His main focuses where architectural designs, he has designed many Victorian churches in England, in Ireland and Australia and the building Palace of Westminster in London. Pugin family had a history of architects, his father and his two siblings where all architects; they continued the firm that they’re farther began.


He was known for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style, which was displayed in the Palace of Westminster’s interior design. His works as been noted as unacknowledged works, had a vision for Victorian England and in his shot life with tragedies; his works have been crafted and designed in a highest forms of the art.





Important Artworks

“Tulip and Willow” 1873


Tulip and Willow is a furnishing textile pattern used for curtains, wall decoration and furniture upholstery. The pattern is part of the arts and craft from, designee in 1873 by William Morris and made in 1883 by Morris & Co, the technique used to create was Block-printed and indigo discharge cotton as the base.

When Morris was starting to design the textile where he spent time with Thomas Wardle at his print works in Leek, Staffordshire in 1875, where experimenting with natural dyes, He had a dislike towards the way the blue washed, Accordion to him “they wash even worse than Clarkson’s blues; in fact worse that any I have ever seen and it would be useless to sell them in the present state.” In a letter he sent Wardle, is speculated that this could be where Morris was trying to come up with the Tulip and Willow design, then in 883, he was successful in the pattern by the indigo discharge method in his own factory at Merton Abbey, Wimbledon.



“Palace of Westminster” 1840- 1870


Palace of Westminster is in Westminster London. This building is home to debates and action regarding to the laws of the UK, it seats the hose of lords and the House of Commons. The first Palace was built in the 11th century, On the 6th of October 1834 where a devastating destruction of the old Palace of Westminster had occurred due to a fire that was burning a small wooden tally sticks; which where used to record and document numbers or quantities even messages.

These where used for accounting procedures of the Exchequer until 1826. They where thrown in the two furnaces underneath the House of Lords chambers, which jammed and stared a chimney fire, and burned the building as the fire whet through the walls. The Palace of Westminster was rebuild throw 1840 to 1870.





Social/Cultural/Historical Impact

The term arts and crafts was given to it when a meeting was held about the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1887, by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson who was a bookbinder associated with this movement. The movement it self was an inspiration for others in Victorian England. Inspired by the architect Augustus Pugin, the writer John Ruskin and the artist William Morris. These men changed the contemporary styles of of manufacturing decorative arts.

The arts and crafts movement did began in Briton and spared to Europe and North America between 1880 and 1910. It lastly emerged in Japan in the 1920s as a Mingei, meaning folk crafts. The movement had a rage of style that veered depending on the social and cultural aspects of the region where the movement was being used. As the era was Victorian England, the golden age mechanical and industrial evaluation, many people where in poverty and out of work due to the machines rise, which was replacing factory workers. The arts and crafts movement sort use traditional form of manufacturing techniques in order to produce products, which was a reaction many people associated with.

The arts and crafts movement was considered due the deplorable states that both the industrial and unregulated trades within Briton, this forced architects, designers and artists to find methods of design in the decretive arts in the 1860s 1870s. This in time became the foundation for the arts and craft movement we know to this day.




Task One part two


Task Two


Task Three


2016 – modified

Interactive art



12 June 2016


‘Interactive art is a form of art that involves the spectator in a way that allows the art to achieve its purpose. Some interactive art installations achieve this by letting the observer or visitor “walk” in, on, and around them; some others ask the artist or the spectators to become part of the artwork.’



This extract of text from Wikipedia gave me a good general idea on what interactive art is.

For me is means that the art is a fiscal or visual art that the view can see, or sometimes be part of. The viewer or viewers sometime can walk into the installation interact with the art it self.

But to truly understands what interactive art is I need to find existing art .





The Half the Air in a Given Space Installation is Utterly Playful

Meghan Young


12 June 12 2016



‘The Half the Air in a Given Space art installation will bring to mind the ball pit in McDonald’s play area for children. Except that this interactive installation has been created with adults in mind. In place of the colorful plastic balls, the exhibit is comprised of thousands of balloons, all of the same color. The artist writes, “It is important to me that the situation is normal, that, as usual, the space is full of air; it’s just that half of it [is] inside the balloons.”‘ 

(“Massive Balloon-Filled Rooms : Half The Air In A Given Space”)


This is a fiscal installation for kid’s concept but is based around adults. The installation keeps in mind of an adult’s  playful aspects for colour and child like experiences of an adult. This installation has bee recred again and again since it was first seen by the public.

this particular pace of art has a metaphoric meaning behind it’s crete a






Berkeley, California


12 June 2016


‘Falling Girl is an immersive interactive narrative installation that allows the viewer to participate in the story of a young girl falling from a skyscraper. During her miraculously slow descent, the girl reacts to the people and events in each window. Daylight fades, night falls and passes, and at dawn, when the falling girl finally lands on the sidewalk, she is an aged woman bearing no resemblance to the young girl who started her fall minutes before.’

(“Digital Art”)



This interactive art is an visual interaction rather then a phiscal one. This video has a woman falling thought the sky and has she travels unnaturally towards the ground she’s presented with situations that could apply to our lives. This peace of intrractvity is a concept for our reaction of actions in life, the small or large impact of that we might have on another until  the end of time, represented by falling within the video and as she reaches the ground so to dose here life.






San Francisco


12 June 2016


‘…The first is a rectangular array of twelve small impellers, which stands on a table on one side of the gallery. This small input device is electronically linked to a large wall of twelve electric fans…’

(“Digital Art”)



This is a phisical interaction, that I don’t think has to do with anything metaphorical or deeper meaning towards the art  but a simple interaction between a miniature system that is paired with a larger scale versions in in front. It could be to exhibit modern advancement in technology and  so the artist is simply letting the public know what is possible with modern technology. A equal number of small and larg fans are placed. A person can interact with the smaller fans and the same action is coped by the larger fanns.

This type of concept for an interactive art project is more to my type of work, I could do some thing like this but with Digital technology.




Freemote’11 & Fiber Festival / Netherlands



16 June 2016

‘A text discussing about the threshold on ethics and morality was looping on the floor, people who step on the typographic area to read it, realize them selves on the wall and the interaction process starts.’




This form of interactivity was created by NOTA BENE Visual a multi-disciplinary studio based in Istanbul. They are specialised in digital experiences with the newest technology.

In one of there lines of it repeats s control, this form of interaction not only is a conseptul type are dealing with the aspect of law and how most of that is actually fair,  wtitten with in the test type.



The Future of Art: 8 Digital Installations and Interactive Spaces

Winnipeg, Canada



20 June 2016


Behaviours of Light

‘Canadian architecture firm JNZNBRK has transformed an entire gallery space with their temporary installation “Behaviours of Light.” The designers carefully placed 39 acrylic triangles, each treated with a semi-reflective film, at a specific height to create a reflection. The installation pushes the viewer to rethink the gallery environment; the walls of the room don’t only create a space for the work, but are an essential part of its display.’

(“The Future Of Art: 8 Digital Installations And Interactive Spaces”)

I love that this use a physical metal to make somthing so  easy but its complicate in it’s own build. I would like to do something like this.



The Future of Art: 8 Digital Installations and Interactive Spaces

Carina Ow


20 June 2016


Plane White

‘The “Plane White” installation is interactive digital experience for Kandinsky’s famed painting “Composition VIII.” Kandinsky himself was a synesthete, meaning he lived with a psychological condition that made him “hear colors”; he associated each shade with a specific musical note, making a entire artwork signify a finished song. Like Kandinsky, these digital artists experience art in a non-traditional, multi-sensory way by blurring the line between the visitor and the digital dimension. The artwork feels tangible to the viewer as they go through the motions recreating Kandinsky’s images on the wall.’

(“The Future Of Art: 8 Digital Installations And Interactive Spaces”)

This interactive peace is more to what I want to do with my own project I just don’t know what it should be yet.


  1. Soler-Adillon, Joan. “The Intangible Material Of Interactive Art: Agency, Behavior And Emergence”. Artnodes 16 (2015): n. pag. Web. 21 June 2016.
  2. “Massive Balloon-Filled Rooms : Half The Air In A Given Space”. TrendHunter.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 21 June 2016.
  3. “Digital Art”. Scott Snibbe – Interactive art. N.p., 2016. Web. 21 June 2016.
  4. “Digital Art”. Scott Snibbe – Interactive art. N.p., 2016. Web. 21 June 2016.
  5. “Works”. NOTA BENE Visual | Digital Experiences. N.p., 2016. Web. 21 June 2016.
  6. “The Future Of Art: 8 Digital Installations And Interactive Spaces”. Architizer. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 June 2016.
  7. “The Future Of Art: 8 Digital Installations And Interactive Spaces”. Architizer. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 June 2016.


interactive art peaces

I looked online to see what I could do for this interactive art project. I couldnt find something that I can use and then adapted the code aspect of the project. I wanted to do smooth more physical but I dint have the time have to do somthing like that. So I was thinking to do a computer interaction, something like the text being shown when a person’s shadow is over it.

I was thinking maybe I could do an interaction where a segment of txt is shown when the mouse is is hovering over the interactive window.

I know that on Adobe Animate has a simple way of achieving  what I’m intending.

I created a white box with a circle cut out. This is the gap where the viewer can see out of.

Screen Shot 2016-06-20 at 23.36.13

I used a preset that was in the library in the code snippets folder. Then all I have to do was grab some text, and that is.

Screen Shot 2016-06-21 at 00.46.12.png


We where asked to research and created our own interactive art peace.

I first started researching on what interactive art is. I found a Wikipida description, which gave me a  general idea on what interactive art peace are.

After that I looked into some existing projects. I found some interesting ideas and art installations that helped me come up with ideas for my interactive peace.

 I was interested in the type of art that involved a person interaction by a digital response, at first I whited to do something like the text interaction but with the limted time and finding the equipment would take more time I had to come up with something that was a lot smaller.

 I found one peace that involved people and technology. It worked by when, a person is on front of a flour full of text when it’s hovered by the person , thier shadows reveled soeme text.

 From that I came up with my project idea of using the same digital type method but not in the same way. It would be a lot more digital. I used a section of code that Animate already had and then created my box,  witch had a circle cut out so a person can see out of it. The box folows the mouse, so it looks like it’s being tracked and then I got a segment of text form The Hobbit book online, after that I tested the interaction and so I could get the right size of the text and the cut out so the view can see the text behind the box.

I think this was ok but it could be better if I had more time to develop and maybe create something more interactive and a larger scale.